RNA cytosine C(5)-methyltransferase NSUN2 - Q08J23 (NSUN2_HUMAN)

 

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Function
RNA cytosine C(5)-methyltransferase that methylates cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (m5C) in various RNAs, such as tRNAs, mRNAs and some long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (PubMed:17071714, PubMed:22995836, PubMed:31358969, PubMed:31199786). Involved in various processes, such as epidermal stem cell differentiation, testis differentiation and maternal to zygotic transition during early development: acts by increasing protein synthesis; cytosine C(5)-methylation promoting tRNA stability and preventing mRNA decay (PubMed:31199786). Methylates cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (m5C) at positions 34 and 48 of intron-containing tRNA(Leu)(CAA) precursors, and at positions 48, 49 and 50 of tRNA(Gly)(GCC) precursors (PubMed:17071714, PubMed:22995836, PubMed:31199786). tRNA methylation is required generation of RNA fragments derived from tRNAs (tRFs) (PubMed:31199786). Also mediates C(5)-methylation of mitochondrial tRNAs (PubMed:31276587). Catalyzes cytosine C(5)-methylation of mRNAs, leading to stabilize them and prevent mRNA decay: mRNA stabilization involves YBX1 that specifically recognizes and binds m5C-modified transcripts (PubMed:22395603, PubMed:31358969). Cytosine C(5)-methylation of mRNAs also regulates mRNA export: methylated transcripts are specifically recognized by THOC4/ALYREF, which mediates mRNA nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling (PubMed:28418038). Also mediates cytosine C(5)-methylation of non-coding RNAs, such as vault RNAs (vtRNAs), promoting their processing into regulatory small RNAs (PubMed:23871666). Cytosine C(5)-methylation of vtRNA VTRNA1.1 promotes its processing into small-vault RNA4 (svRNA4) and regulates epidermal differentiation (PubMed:31186410). May act downstream of Myc to regulate epidermal cell growth and proliferation (By similarity). Required for proper spindle assembly and chromosome segregation, independently of its methyltransferase activity (PubMed:19596847). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
a cytidine in mRNA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine = a 5-methylcytidine in mRNA + H+ + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Interacts with NPM1 and NCL during interphase; interaction is disrupted following phosphorylation at Ser-139. UniProt
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