Girdin - Q3V6T2 (GRDN_HUMAN)


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Bifunctional modulator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) (PubMed:19211784, PubMed:27621449). Acts as a non-receptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor which binds to and activates guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) alpha subunits (PubMed:19211784, PubMed:21954290, PubMed:23509302, PubMed:25187647). Also acts as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor for guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha GNAS (PubMed:27621449). Essential for cell migration (PubMed:20462955, PubMed:16139227, PubMed:19211784, PubMed:21954290). Interacts in complex with G(i) alpha subunits with the EGFR receptor, retaining EGFR at the cell membrane following ligand stimulation and promoting EGFR signaling which triggers cell migration (PubMed:20462955). Binding to Gi-alpha subunits displaces the beta and gamma subunits from the heterotrimeric G-protein complex which enhances phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent phosphorylation and kinase activity of AKT1/PKB (PubMed:19211784). Phosphorylation of AKT1/PKB induces the phosphorylation of downstream effectors GSK3 and FOXO1/FKHR, and regulates DNA replication and cell proliferation (By similarity). Binds in its tyrosine-phosphorylated form to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit PIK3R1 which enables recruitment of PIK3R1 to the EGFR receptor, enhancing PI3K activity and cell migration (PubMed:21954290). Plays a role as a key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway, controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neuron integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). Inhibition of G(s) subunit alpha GNAS leads to reduced cellular levels of cAMP and suppression of cell proliferation (PubMed:27621449). Essential for the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton (PubMed:16139227, PubMed:19211784). Required for formation of actin stress fibers and lamellipodia (PubMed:15882442). May be involved in membrane sorting in the early endosome (PubMed:15882442). Plays a role in ciliogenesis and cilium morphology and positioning and this may partly be through regulation of the localization of scaffolding protein CROCC/Rootletin (PubMed:27623382). UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Homodimer (PubMed:16139227). Interacts (via GBA motif) with guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) alpha subunits GNAI1, GNAI2 and GNAI3 (PubMed:19211784, PubMed:21954290, PubMed:23509302, PubMed:27621449, PubMed:31363053). Also interacts (via GNA motif) with guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) alpha subunit GNAS (PubMed:27621449). Interaction with G(i) alpha subunits occurs before interaction with GNAS and is regulated by phosphorylation; phosphorylation at Ser-1675 enhances binding to G(i) alpha subunits while phosphorylation at Ser-1690 abolishes G(i) alpha subunit binding, promoting binding to GNAS (PubMed:27621449). Interacts (via C-terminal SH2-like region) with growth factor receptors EGFR, INSR and KDR/VEGFR2 (via their autophosphorylated cytoplasmic tails) (PubMed:25187647). Forms a complex with EGFR and GNAI3 which leads to enhanced EGFR signaling and triggering of cell migration; ligand stimulation is required for recruitment of GNAI3 to the complex (PubMed:20462955, PubMed:25187647). Interacts (tyrosine-phosphorylated form) with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit PIK3R1/p85a (via SH2 domains); the interaction enables recruitment of PIK3R1 to the EGFR receptor, enhancing PI3K activity and cell migration (PubMed:21954290). Interacts with serine/threonine-protein kinase PRKCQ; the interaction leads to phosphorylation of CCDC88A and inhibition of its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity (PubMed:23509302). Interacts (via C-terminus) with DISC1; the interaction is direct (By similarity). Interacts with AKT proteins; the interaction is inhibited in the presence of DISC1 (By similarity). Interacts with AKT1/PKB (via C-terminus) (PubMed:16139227). The non-phosphorylated form interacts with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] and weakly with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] (PubMed:16139227). Interacts with microtubules (By similarity). Interacts with actin (PubMed:16139227). UniProt
In the presence of tyrosine-autophosphorylated growth factor receptors, the C-terminus folds into an SH2-like region which promotes the stable recruitment of CCDC88A to the growth factor receptors. The SH2-like region is phosphorylated by the growth factor receptors prior to completion of folding. UniProt
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