Z-DNA-binding protein 1 - Q9H171 (ZBP1_HUMAN)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

 
Function
Key innate sensor that recognizes and binds Z-RNA structures, which are produced by a number of viruses, such as herpesvirus, orthomyxovirus or flavivirus, and triggers different forms of cell death (PubMed:32200799). Once activated upon Z-RNA-binding, ZBP1 interacts with RIPK3, inducing the complementary pathways of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis (By similarity). Acts as a key activator of necroptosis, a programmed cell death process in response to death-inducing TNF-alpha family members: ZBP1-dependent necroptosis involves RIPK3 stimulation, which phosphorylates and activates MLKL, triggering execution of programmed necrosis (By similarity). In addition to TNF-induced necroptosis, necroptosis can also take place in the nucleus in response to orthomyxoviruses infection: ZBP1 recognizes and binds Z-RNA structures that are produced in infected nuclei by orthomyxoviruses, such as the influenza A virus (IAV), leading to ZBP1 activation, RIPK3 stimulation and subsequent MLKL phosphorylation, triggering disruption of the nuclear envelope and leakage of cellular DNA into the cytosol (PubMed:32200799). ZBP1-dependent cell death in response to IAV infection promotes interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) induction in an NLRP3-inflammasome-independent manner: IL1A expression is required for the optimal interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) production, and together, these cytokines promote infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils to the lung, leading to the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (By similarity). In some cell types, also able to restrict viral replication by promoting cell death-independent responses (By similarity). In response to Zika virus infection in neurons, promotes a cell death-independent pathway that restricts viral replication: together with RIPK3, promotes a death-independent transcriptional program that modifies the cellular metabolism via up-regulation expression of the enzyme ACOD1/IRG1 and production of the metabolite itaconate (By similarity). Itaconate inhibits the activity of succinate dehydrogenase, generating a metabolic state in neurons that suppresses replication of viral genomes (By similarity). UniProt
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Subunit Structure
(Microbial infection) Interacts with human herpesvirus 1 protein ICP0. UniProt
Domain
The Z-binding domains recognize and bind left-handed double-stranded Z-RNA structures, but not A-RNA, the right-handed double-stranded RNAs that are structurally very different from Z-RNAs. The second Z-binding domain is essential for sensing influenza A virus (IAV) Z-RNAs. UniProt
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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