Mu-type opioid receptor

UniProtKB accession:  P42866
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Go to UniProtKB:  P42866
UniProtKB description:  Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin (PubMed:10842167, PubMed:16682964, PubMed:21422164, PubMed:22437502, PubMed:26245379, PubMed:7797593, PubMed:9037090). Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone (PubMed:16682964, PubMed:7797593, PubMed:9037090). Also activated by enkephalin peptides, such as Met-enkephalin or Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe, with higher affinity for Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe (PubMed:35201898, PubMed:6933569). Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociation of the G-protein complex with the free GTP-bound G-protein alpha and the G-protein beta-gamma dimer activating downstream cellular effectors (PubMed:10842167, PubMed:21422164, PubMed:22437502). The agonist- and cell type-specific activity is predominantly coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i) and G(o) G alpha proteins, GNAI1, GNAI2, GNAI3 and GNAO1 isoforms Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, and to a lesser extent to pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha proteins GNAZ and GNA15 (PubMed:26245379, PubMed:9767386). They mediate an array of downstream cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and both N-type and L-type calcium channels, activation of inward rectifying potassium channels, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C (PLC), phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and regulation of NF-kappa-B (By similarity). Also couples to adenylate cyclase stimulatory G alpha proteins (By similarity). The selective temporal coupling to G-proteins and subsequent signaling can be regulated by RGSZ proteins, such as RGS9, RGS17 and RGS4 (PubMed:15827571, PubMed:17725581). Phosphorylation by members of the GPRK subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases and association with beta-arrestins is involved in short-term receptor desensitization (By similarity). Beta-arrestins associate with the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and uncouple it from the G-protein thus terminating signal transduction (By similarity). The phosphorylated receptor is internalized through endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits which involves beta-arrestins (PubMed:12642578). The activation of the ERK pathway occurs either in a G-protein-dependent or a beta-arrestin-dependent manner and is regulated by agonist-specific receptor phosphorylation (By similarity). Acts as a class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which dissociates from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergoes rapid recycling (By similarity). Receptor down-regulation pathways are varying with the agonist and occur dependent or independent of G-protein coupling. Endogenous ligands induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis and recycling (By similarity). Heterooligomerization with other GPCRs can modulate agonist binding, signaling and trafficking properties (By similarity).
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